Bidirectional MM-Wave Radio over Fiber transmission through frequency dual 16-tupling of RF local oscillator
© The Author(s) 2016
Received: 21 July 2016
Accepted: 9 November 2016
Published: 22 November 2016
In this paper for the first time, a 60 GHz bidirectional Millimeter Wave (MM-Wave) Radio over Fiber (RoF) transmission through a new frequency dual 16-tupling of 3.75 GHz local oscillator (LO) is demonstrated. The proposed system is constructed with parallel combination of two cascaded stages of MZMs. The upper cascaded stage and the Lower cascaded stages are biased at the Maximum Transmission Point (MATP). By suitable adjustments of LO phase and amplitude, optical sidebands with spacing of 8 times the input LO frequency is generated. These sidebands are then separated using filters to achieve dual 16-tupling. A good agreement between numerical derivations and the simulation results are achieved. Further, a simulation is performed to access the dual bidirectional transmission performance for the double and single tone modulation with 2.5 Gbps data transmission. The transmission distance is limited to 25 km for the double tone modulation due to bit walk of effect. A 60 km link distance is achieved with single tone modulation. The dispersion induced power penalties less than 0. 5 dB at 10−9 BER is observed for both up and down streams.
KeywordsMillimeter Wave 16-tupling Radio over Fiber Mach-Zehnder Modulator
From the past two decades demands for the high data rate wireless services are ever increasing. To support such a growing demand, a higher bandwidth carrier frequency is required. As the lower frequency spectrum up to 30 GHz is congested, the MM-Wave band (30–300GHz) is now considered to be the promising candidate for the support of the emerging data traffic since it offers 270 GHz bandwidth. Though, a major bottle neck of the MM-Wave communications are the MM-Wave generation and transmission since the electrical generation suffers from the limited frequency response of the available conventional electronics components and, the MM-Wave transmission suffers from huge free space/cable losses . A viable solution for this issue enables us to use the hybrid system which combines both wireless and optical communications, where the MM-Waves are generated by optical methods at the central station (CS) and distributed over an optical fiber to the base station (BS). The optical generation and distribution of MM-Wave enjoys the low loss and huge bandwidth of the optical fibers. Several optical MM-Wave generation methods have been proposed including direct modulation of the laser diode, optical heterodyning of the highly correlated laser sources and external modulation. Among these, external modulation based frequency multiplication techniques have become popular due to higher modulation bandwidth, tunability and high stability [2, 3]. Several multiplication techniques have been proposed with different multiplication factors such as doubling , tripling , quadrupling [5–7], sextupling , octupling , 12-tupling , 16- tupling [11, 12] and so on. A MM-Wave generation technique with highest frequency multiplication factor reduces the need of high frequency RF local oscillator at the CS. However, cost effective design of CS as well as the BS is a challenge. A full duplex RoF system which shares a single laser source is a one of the cost effective techniques. In addition to this, reduction of high frequency RF LO at the CS will bring down the cost of the entire system. Hence, a full duplex RoF transmission with frequency dual quadrupling was proposed in , dual sextupling  and dual octupling presented in  these methods were using a single laser source for both upstream and downstream by supporting two BSs simultaneously. However, as the frequency multiplication factor is too low, there is a demand for a high frequency RF local oscillator at the CS. To achieve a higher frequency multiplication factor, two or more MZMs were employed either in series or in parallel configuration. A cascaded combination of two MZMs was used to generate frequency quadrupling , sextupling [8, 17] and octupling . Three arm MZM was used for the generation of sextupling in  and three parallel MZMs were used to generate sextupling, 12-tupling and 18 tupling in . A frequency octupling was generated using 4 MZMs in [21, 22].
In this paper, we propose a novel frequency dual 16-tupling of the given RF local oscillator which will considerably eliminate the need for a high frequency RF local oscillators at the CS compared to the other techniques proposed in [13, 15] and also as it supports full duplex transmission by wavelength reuse, cost of both CS and BS can be greatly minimized. A mathematical proof of the proposed scheme is presented and for the proof of concept a simulation is conducted with full bidirectional MM-W RoF transmission.
The structure of this paper is as follows, the mathematical principle behind the proposed technique is discussed in the section II. The simulation work and results of proposed scheme is presented in section III and finally, conclusion is presented in the chapter IV.
The Eq. (18) clearly shows that there are only (ω c ± 4ω c ), (ω c ± 8ω c ), (ω c + 12ω c ), and (ω c + 20ω c ) order sidebands. For want of dual 16-tupling the upper sidebands (ω c + 4ω c ), (ω c + 12ω c ) and (ω c + 20ω c ) should be separated and then only (ω c + 4ω c ) and (ω c + 20ω c ) sidebands will be allowed to beat at the photo detector to result a MM-Wave frequency output which is 16 time the input local oscillator frequency. At the same time, the sideband corresponding to the (ω c + 12ω c ) will be reused by the BS1 for the uplink data transmission. Similarly, the lower sidebands (ω c − 4ω c ) and (ω c − 20ω c ) sidebands will be beating at the photo detector to generate 16 tupled MM-Wave and the sideband (ω c − 12ω c ) will be reused at the BS2 for the uplink transmission. Hence, along with dual 16 tupled MM-Wave generation, a bidirectional MM-Wave RoF communication can also be established between the CS and BS.
Simulation, Results and Discussions
A new approach for generating the frequency dual 16-tupling is proposed and demonstrated using parallel configuration of two stage cascaded MZMs. This system simultaneously supported two base stations with bidirectional data transmission between BS and CS by wavelength reuse without additional requirements; hence costs of the BSs are also reduced significantly. Transmission Performance is evaluated for both double tone and single tone modulation formats. The simulation result showed 5 dB dispersion induced power penalty in the downstream data transmission and less than 0.3 dB for the upstream transmission over 25 km SMF at the BER of 10−9 for the double tone data modulation. With the single tone modulation transmission, the link distance is extended to 60 km with dispersion induced power penalty less than 0.5 dB for both upstream and downstream.
The authors thankfully acknowledge the Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi for their Fund for Improvement of S&T Infrastructure in Universities and Higher Educational Institutions – (FIST) grant through the order No.SR/FST/College-061/2011(C) to procure the Optiwave suite Simulation tools.
KEM has worked out the mathematical derivations of the proposed system and carried out all the simulation works. ASR has developed the concept and involved in the manuscript preparation. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Capmany, J., Novak, D.: Microwave photonics combines twoworlds. Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qi, G., Yao, J.P., Seregelyi, J., Paquet, S., Belisle, C.: Generation and distribution of wide-band continuously tunable millimeter wave signal with an optical external modulation technique. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 53, 3090–3097 (2005)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- O'Rcilly, J.J., Lane, P.M., Heidemann, R., Hofstetter, R.: Opical generation of verynarrow linewidth Millimeter wave signals. Electron. Lett 28(25), 2309–2311 (1992)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang, Q., Rideout, H., Zeng, F., Yao, J.P.: Millimeter-Wave frequency tripling based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2460–2462 (2006)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin, C.T., Shih, P.T., Chen, J., Xue, W.Q., Peng, P.C., Chi, S.: Optical millimeter wave signal generation using frequency quadrupling technique and no optical filtering. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 209–211 (2008)Google Scholar
- Mohamed, M., Zhang, X., Hraimel, B., Wu, K.: Analysis of frequency quadrupling using a singleMach-Zehnder modulator for millimeter-wavegeneration and distribution over fiber systems. Opt Express 16(14), 10786–10802 (2008)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu, S., Gu, W., Yang, A., Jiang, T., Wnag, C.: A Frequency quadrupling optical mm-Wave generation for hybrid fiber-wireless systems. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun/Supplement- Part 2 31(12), 797–803 (2013)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mohamed, M., Zhang, X., Hraimel, B., Wu, K.: Frequency sixupler for millimeter-wave over fiber systems. Opt Express 15, 10141–10151 (2008)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ma, J., Xin, X., Yu, J., Yu, C., Wnag, K., Huang, H., Rao, L.: Optical millimeter wave generated by octupling the frequency of the local oscillator. J. Opt. Netw. 7, 837–845 (2008)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu, Z., Zhao, S., Li, Y., Chu, X., Wnag, X., Zhao, G.: A radio over fiber system with frequency 12-Tupling optical millimeter wave generation to overcome chromatic dispersion. Quantum Electron. Lett. 49, 919–922 (2013)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen, H., Ning, T., Jian, W., Pei, L., Li, J.: D-band millimeter-wave generator based on a frequency 16-tupling feedforward modulation technique. Opt. Eng. 52, 0761041–0761044 (2013)Google Scholar
- Zhu, Z., Zhao, S., Chu, X., Dong, Y.: Optical generation of millimeter – wave signals via frequency 16-tupling without an optical filter. Opt. Commun. 354, 40–47 (2015)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hu, J.H., Huang, X.G., Xie, J.L.: A full-duplex radio-over-fiber systems based on dual quadrupling-frequency. Opt. Commun. 284, 729–734 (2011)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang, K., Huang, X.G., Zhu, J.H., Fang, W.J.: Transmission of 60 GHz wired/wireless based on full-duplex radio-over-fiber using dual-sextupling frequency. IET Commun. 6, 2900–2906 (2012)View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cheng, G., Guo, B., Liu, S., Fang, W.: A novel full-duplex radio-over-fiber systems based on dual octupling-frequency for 82 GHz W-band radio frequency and wavelength reuse for uplink connection. Optik 125, 4072–4076 (2014)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao, Z., Wen, Y., Zhang, H.: Simplified optical millimeter wave generation conFigureuration by frequency quadrupling using two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators. Opt Lett 34, 3250–3252 (2009)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qin, Y., Sun, J.: Frequency sextupling technique using two cascaded dual-electrode Mach-Zehnder modulators interleaved with Gaussian band pass filter. Opt. Commun. 285, 2911–2916 (2012)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen, Y., Wen, A., Shang, L.: Analysis of an optical mm-wave generation scheme with frequency octupling using two cascaded Mach-zehnder modulators. Opt. Commun. 283, 4933–4941 (2010)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen, Y., Wen, A., Yin, X., Shang, L.: A photonic mm-wave frequency sextupler using an Inegrated Mach-Zehnder modulator with three arms. Fiber Integr. Opt. 31, 196–207 (2012)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen, Y., Wen, A., Guo, J., Shang, L., Wang, Y.: A novel optical mm-wave generation scheme based on three parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators. Opt. Commun. 284, 1159–1169 (2011)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shang, L., Wen, A., Li, B., Wang, T., Chen, Y., Li, M.: A filterless optical millimeter wave generation based on frequency octupling. Optik 123, 1183–1186 (2012)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hasan, M., Hall, T.J.: A Photonic frequency octo-tupler with reduced RF drive power and extended spurious sideband suppression. Opt. Laser Technol. 81, 115–121 (2016)ADSView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhoua, M., Ma, J.: Influence of fiber dispersion on the transmission performance of a quadruple frequency optical millimeter wave with two signal modulation format. Opt Swtiching Netw 9, 343–350 (2012)View ArticleGoogle Scholar