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Table 2 Typical properties of mode-locked Er-doped fiber lasers

From: Graphene saturable absorbers applications in fiber lasers

Fabrication method Average output power Pulse energy Center wavelength Pulse duration Repetition frequency Ref
CVD 1.9 mW 33pJ 1564 nm 315 fs 57.96 MHz [105]
1567 nm 844 fs 16.34 MHz [106]
ME 30 mW 17.7pJ 1567 nm 647/728 fs 294/800 MHz [107]
CVD 18 mW 0.7nJ 2784.5 nm 42 ps 25.4 MHz [108]
ODD 33 mW 82.61nJ 1565.6 nm 1.8 ps 6.9 MHz [109]
CVD 80 mW 1550 nm 6.5 ps 2.3 THz [103]
CVD 130 mW 7.3nJ 1576.3 nm 415 fs 6.84 MHz [40]
CE 5 W 3nJ 1590 nm 700 fs 6.95 MHz [110]
CE 27 mW 1531.3 nm 1.21 ps 1.888847 MHz [111]
CVD 3.85 mW 0.26nJ 1562.76 nm 500 fs 14.795 MHz [112]
CVD 35.89 W 4.08nJ 1570.45 nm 2.43 ps 12.08 KHz [113]
LTE 27 mW 1.4nJ 1560 nm 6 ns 388 KHz [114]
CVD 16.77 mW 7.7 to 4.6pJ 1570 nm 950 fs 15.71 MHz to 502.84 MHz [115]
ME 9.6 mW 1560 nm 160 fs 106 MHz [116]
CVD 102.5 mW 0.5nJ 1560 nm 153 fs 232 MHz [117]
ME 37 mW 1562 nm 630 fs 41.89 MHz [78]
CVD 2.31 mW 1560 nm 350 fs 54 MHz [118]
ME 1.36 mW 36.5pJ 1565.9 nm 613 fs 37.2 MHz [119]
ME 2.5 mW 0.16nJ 1060 nm 2.7 ps 9.5 MHz [120]
ME 3.9 mW 1563 nm 627 fs 14.3 MHz [121]
LPE 18.22 mW 1.44nJ 1567.29 nm 1.38 ns 12.66 MHz [91]
ME 2.5 mW 0.16nJ 1560 nm 620 ± 10 fs 42 MHz [122]
CVD 3 mW 1560.3 nm to 1568.2 nm 0.60 ps to 1.17 ps 60.6 MHz [123]
ME 1.96 mW 33.7pJ 1560 nm 400 fs 58 MHz [124]
CVD 16 mW 1560 nm 1.8 ps 6.9 MHz [125]
  1. ODD optically driven deposition, CE chemically exfoliated, ME mechanically exfoliate, LPE liquid phase exfoliation, LTE low-temperature exfoliation